Methodology development: putting enzymes on DNA scaffold.

In nature, the catalytic efficiency of multienzyme complexes highly depends on their spatial organization. The positions and orientations of the composite enzymes are often precisely controlled to facilitate substrate transport between them. Self-assembled DNA nanostructures hold great promise for organizing biomolecules at the nanoscale. Here, we present detailed protocols for exploiting DNA nanostructures as assembly scaffolds that organize the spatial arrangements of multienzyme cascades with control over their relative distance, compartmentalization and substrate diffusion paths. The protocol describes the preparation and purification of DNA-conjugated enzymes and cofactors, along with the assembly of these prepared complexes on DNA nanostructures. The architecture of assembled enzyme complexes is then readily characterized using a broad selection of techniques from routine gel electrophoresis to advanced single-molecule imaging. We also describe methods of purifying these nano-assemblies and testing them with functional assays based on either bulk or single-molecule fluorescence measurements. The entire assembly and characterization of a multienzyme complex can be completed within 1–2 weeks.